Talk about | What are the "extraordinary functions" of new filament fabrics?

Editor's note

With the changes in market demand, new types of functional fabrics have emerged in an endless stream, and there are great opportunities for spring bamboo shoots. In the development of new functional fabrics, the filament weaving industry has been the leader. Under what is a new term, what is the mystery of new filament fabrics? In this issue, we will “exposure” the manufacturing process and application range of common waterproof and moisture-permeable fabrics, thermostatic fabrics, metal wire fabrics, and bionic functional fabrics.

Specific function of a waterproof and breathable fabric

Waterproof and breathable fabrics are a large category of filament fabrics. They are widely used in outdoor sportswear. Also known as “breathable fabrics”, they are popular with outdoor sports enthusiasts due to their comfortable, breathable and waterproof features.

Waterproof and moisture permeable fabric means that the water does not penetrate the fabric under pressure, and circulated in the body sweat can diffusive transport through the fabric to the outside, will not make functional fabric feel stifling. Water resistance refers to the resistance of the fabric to the external water that has a certain pressure and the resistance to the liquid, such as snow, dew, frost, etc., that is produced outside the clothing. This performance mainly depends on the external pressure, the size of the fabric gap hole and so on. Moisture permeability refers to the absorption, transfer, and diffusion of sweat in fabrics, which is mainly related to the absorption of water molecules by fibers and the passage or gap between the fibers and fibers in the fabric, yarns and yarns, and the like.

The waterproof and breathable fabrics with better performance on the market are microporous films formed by stretching PTFE resin as a raw material. The pore size range of the film is 0.2~5μm, which is smaller than the diameter of light mist (20~100μm) and far larger than the diameter of water vapor molecules (0.003~0.004μm). This allows water vapor to diffuse through these permanent physical microporous channels. It cannot pass through, and the PTFE film is water repellent, and thus such a film has excellent waterproof and moisture permeability properties. However, with the increase of the time taken, the water-proof and moisture-permeability effects gradually deteriorate, and even the phenomenon of water seeping through the fabric may occur. To solve this problem, related companies subsequently introduced a two-component second-generation film consisting of a PTFE membrane and polyurethane. The use of a polyurethane component allows water vapor molecules to pass through the highly selective permeability to overcome the first-generation products. Disadvantages.

At present, most of the outdoor sportswear on the market, such as jackets, mountaineering jackets, or winter clothes, use this kind of fabric, so that people wearing such clothing in the outdoor sports process will play a role in waterproofing and will not make people feel bored. Excellent outdoor functional fabrics.

Special function two adjustable temperature fabric

Temperature-adjustable fabrics are a new type of functional fabrics currently on the market. They achieve temperature regulation through the thermal buffering effect of automatic heat storage or heat release. This fabric is the fabric of choice for ski wear, sportswear, jackets and other products, can also be made into bandages, boots, gloves, socks and caps, or bedding, sheets and blankets and other bedding.

In fact, temperature-adjustable fabrics can maintain the temperature of human body and clothing as a microclimate within a certain period of time when the temperature changes abruptly, thereby reducing the body's heat stress and satisfying human comfort under extreme environmental conditions. need. In other words, this type of fabric has the function of automatically adjusting the internal temperature of the fabric within a certain temperature range in accordance with changes in the external environment temperature. For example, when the temperature of the external environment increases, it can store excess heat, so that the internal temperature increase of the fabric is relatively reduced; when the ambient temperature drops, it can release energy, so that the internal temperature of the fabric is relatively low, making clothing After the more comfortable than traditional fabrics.

The key to realizing the thermoregulation function of the temperature-adjustable fabric lies in the fact that the fabric is produced using a material that can undergo phase change. People usually add this material to the fabric in order to realize the thermoregulation function.

In the manufacture of thermostatic fabrics, most people begin with the production of temperature-controllable fibers. For example, it has been studied to fill phase-change materials into hollow fibers such as rayon and polypropylene, and to use phase-change hydrated salts at room temperature. Melting and crystallization to achieve the purpose of endothermic and exothermic, so as to make the fiber will adjust the temperature; Later, some people made the phase change material into near-nano-scale capsules, mixed in the spinning solution, and melt-spinned directly to produce the phase. Functional fibers. The temperature-controllable fabric made by this method has better durability. The disadvantage is that the raw material cost is high, and the fabric made is expensive. Some people use post-finishing methods to fabricate tempered fabrics by adding a phase change material, polyethylene glycol (PEG), to the fabric in a cross-linked manner, so that the fabric will have good heat storage and temperature adjustment performance; People researched that a certain amount of heat-accumulating thermo-regulator microcapsules and adhesives were uniformly mixed, and the coating of polyester-cotton and other fabrics was finished to realize the manufacture of thermostatic fabrics. Thermostat fabric made by the method of finishing, price comparisons PFP, but the fabric may be slightly worse thermostat persistence, fabric feel style will be affected, and the permeability will decrease.

Special function three wire fabric

Metal wire fabrics are a special type of functional fabrics. The warp and weft yarns consist of chemical filaments and metal wires. The uniqueness of wire fabrics lies in the use of woven wire fabrics. It is understood that currently, there are two types of wire filament fibers produced on the market. One type is made by stretching the metal by special processing techniques. The overall composition of the wire is metal; the other type is polyester fiber or nylon fiber. By coating the central fiber with a conductive film made of a material such as silver, copper or nickel. Usually, the metal fiber is added in the weft direction of the fabric, and the amount is generally about 5% of the total amount of the fabric.

In addition to wire fabric having anti-electromagnetic radiation and anti-static properties, but also has exceptional gloss, excellent drape and other properties, it provides a wealth of material for product development.

As we all know, because of its special anti-electromagnetic radiation and anti-static properties, metal wire fabrics are widely used in industrial applications. For example, many metal wire fabrics are used to make electromagnetic shielding materials. Shielding wall coverings are one of them, which can reduce radiation performance, protect human health, and combine aesthetics and functionality. At the same time, metal wire fabrics are also widely used in scientific research, military, electronics, firefighting and even medical industries.

Currently, the latest radiation protection clothing for pregnant women in the market is made of metal wire fabrics. The price is high, and the price of high-quality radiation protection clothing is more than 1,000 yuan. Due to the release of fertility policies and special care for pregnant women in the country in recent years, sales of pregnant women's radiation protection clothing have remained high in the market.

The garments and decorative fabrics made from the unique luster of the wire fabrics are also unique. For example, the clothing worn by many models during the show is made of wire fabrics. Under the dazzling light, the light emitted by the wire fabrics is not comparable to ordinary fabrics and can help models to shine. It is understood that many decorative umbrella fabrics are also made of metal wire fabrics, such as the China Filament Weaving Association governing units, Wujiang City, the letter Textile Technology Co., Ltd. production of a lot of umbrella fabrics are used wire fabrics. The fabric is full of brilliance and has been sought after by many people and is selling well in the market.

In the recent market, a metal wire with the characteristics of the memory silk has emerged, which is unique in the development and production of memory fabrics. For example, a memory fabric recently developed in Korea does not use the usual PTT memory wire in the latitude and longitude directions. Instead, it adds some newly-developed metal wires. In addition to having a metal-like texture and luster, the resulting fabric has memories. Performance can achieve the characteristics of “stand without failing, and push with peace”. This fabric is currently used in the production of evening wear, high-end jackets and other jackets. The price is high, and the demand for high-end clothing market is relatively large.

Special function four bionic functional fabrics

Bionic is the simulation of nature, usually refers to the structure and working principle of imitating a living system. The application of bionic principles to the design and development of fabrics is an innovation in fabric development, especially in the filament weaving industry. Thanks to the strong plasticity of chemical fiber filaments, more new elements can be added during the production process to obtain new functional fabrics that meet consumer demand. Biomimetic functional fabrics are a type of high-tech fabrics obtained using this principle.

At present, the water-repellent, anti-fouling and self-cleaning multifunctional fabrics developed based on the bionic principle of the lotus leaf effect are more common. After bionic finishing of such fabrics, the dirt is easy to roll off, easy to be washed out of the water without contaminating the surface, and does not require high temperature and excessive detergent, has the characteristics of water saving, energy saving and environmental protection, and is a kind of environmental protection significance. Strong functional fabric. At present, many companies use weaving superfine denier polyester filaments to weave the fabrics. The filaments of the network are small in rigidity, soft and easy to bend, have a large specific surface area, have strong capillary effect, and have good grip and strength. The purpose of reducing costs.

Hollow fibers are derived from animal skins. When people studied the animal's coat in detail, it was found that there was a cavity in the animal's hair and its shape was similar to that of a hollow tube, so the warming effect was very good. After being inspired, people began to study the manufacture of hollow fiber.

In recent years, the types of hollow polyester fibers have been continuously increased and the range of applications has been continuously expanded. Such as hollow polyester FDY filament made of fabrics, mainly used in outdoor sportswear, casual wear and jackets and other production, has a good warmth, fluffy and soft, coupled with the profile of the fiber cross-section, the fabric moisture absorption breathable Excellent sex. There is also a class of antibacterial hollow polyester staple fibers that is also a common wool-like differential fiber. The fabrics woven with such fibers have good resilience, bulkiness, and warmth retention, and also have antibacterial, odor-proof properties, and have a certain health care effect on the human body.

Color-changing fabrics were born as chameleon-like skin emergency systems. Using bionics principle, a related organization has successfully developed a photochromic fiber that can automatically change color. The fiber is very sensitive to light and humidity and can change with the temperature and humidity in the environment. This color-changing fiber is dyed with a special dye and changes color with the ambient light color. In addition, it can display different colors with increasing temperature. Fashion made of discolored fabrics is loved by young people who are pursuing fashion and personalization. At the same time, it is also widely used in military clothing. Soldiers wearing "color-changing military uniforms" can play a very good "pretend" role in actual combat.

Applying the bionic principle to the development and production of fabrics is an innovation in fabric development. With the continuous development of science and technology, more advanced technologies will be applied in the textile industry in the future, and the textile industry will also be surrounded by more high technologies. Down to the textile powerhouse.
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